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Koryagina Yu. V. Development of specific types of sensorimotor reactions in the training process of badminton players / Yu.V. Koryagina // PHYSICAL CULTURE and SPORT. - 2008.  No. 1. (63) - Pp. 142-144

UDC 796.015.053


Siberian state University of physical culture and sports


The article presents the technology of research and development of specific types of sensorimotor reactions of badminton players. Specific tests for their research and development are defined: time of simple sensorimotor reaction to a light stimulus, time of reaction to a moving object and time of choice reaction. The advantages of using this technology with the help of computer modeling of competitive conditions of badminton players are described.

Urgency. One of the most important qualities in badminton is speed [1, 2, 3, 4]. Currently, the shuttlecock speed badminton is one of the fastest sports games. When badminton is played by masters, the shuttlecock between strokes is in flight 0.95 C. nowadays, the initial speed of the shuttlecock from the European champion S. Yunson reached the speed of a single — engine aircraft — 256 km/h. for comparison, the record speed of a tennis ball — 247 km/h, a hockey puck -190 km/h, a football-127 km/h. It is not surprising that sometimes a point draw consisting of exchanges of 25-30 blows takes only about 20 seconds [1]. Thus, one of the leading factors limiting the effectiveness of badminton players is a special speed — that is, the ability to perform at a very high speed competitive actions, elements and parts of movements. Problem. The organization of game actions of badminton players when playing at high speeds requires high accuracy and speed of response. In modern badminton, the concept of "fast game" has already been formed — it is a game with the interception of the shuttlecock at the net, with finishing, a game of anticipation. In this case, it is necessary to "run ahead": to carry out the advance of the excitation course ("advanced reflection") [1, 2]. That is, badminton players are very important speed of all types of motor reaction. However, currently there are no modern computer techniques for the study of various indicators of reaction time, which would take into account the specifics of competitive activities of badminton players, as well as allow a comprehensive assessment of the specifics of sensorimotor reactions in this sport. The aim of the work is to develop a comprehensive method of expression of various specific manifestations of reaction time in badminton players. Work objectives: 1. Determine the main types of sensorimotor reactions that play a major role in the game of badminton. 2. To analyze features of manifestation of these types of reactions in actions of badminton players. 3. To develop technology of research of specific types of reactions for badminton players.
Result of work. The complex manifestation of speed during a badminton match depends on: instant reaction to a moving shuttlecock; comprehension of the significance of the opponent's plan, the correct starting position, allowing to effectively perform the starting acceleration to the place of landing of the shuttlecock, response, putting the opponent in a difficult game situation [3, 4]. In badminton, in addition to simple reactions, such manifestations as the reaction time of choice and the reaction time to a moving object (RDO), a kind of prediction of an event or action — extrapolation, receive preferential expression. The response time is measured by the interval between the appearance of the signal and the beginning of the response. This time is determined by: — the speed of excitation of the receptor and sending the impulse in the sensory centers; the speed of signal processing in the Central nervous system (transcoding, identification); — the speed of decision-making about responses to signals; — quick sending of the signal for the beginning of action of efferent fibers; the speed of development of excitation in the Executive body (muscle) and overcome the inertia of rest of the corresponding branch of the body. A simple sensorimotor reaction is an extremely rapid response by a simple and predetermined movement to a simple signal that suddenly appears, disappears or changes, but is known [5]. The most typical for badminton is a simple spectator-motor reaction to the emerging light signal. In many cases, a person is required not just to respond to a signal, but to assess the situation, the significance of a stimulus in their multiple simultaneous appearance, when one signal must be responded to, and another — no, or when one signal must be responded to in one way, and the other — in another. This naturally leads to an increase in the response time to the signal due to the "delay". That is, the time spent on signal processing, its identification and decision-making on the appropriateness of a particular response. In this regard, there are complex reactions.

A complex sensorimotor reaction is an extremely fast motor response to a complex signal, which is a stimulus with several identifying features or a set of stimuli that differ in some sign [5]. The reaction of choice is an extremely rapid response to one of several possible and suddenly appearing signals by one or another predetermined movement. The complexity of the reaction affects the recorded indicators. There is no correspondence between the simple reaction time and the "delay" time, which gives grounds to consider the "delay" as an independent indicator, not related to the sensory and motor components of the reaction time. You can isolate the "Central delay" from the complex reaction time by subtracting the simple reaction time from the complex reaction time. The error that exists in this case, due to the fact that there is a time of "Central delay" in the time of a simple reaction, is insignificant for practical purposes. The gain for understanding the changes occurring in the Central nervous system is obvious, the time of the Central delay allows us to determine the performance and speed of information processing processes. In addition to the reaction time, the correctness (accuracy, adequacy) of the task execution is also determined [5]. RDO is an extremely fast response to the spatial alignment of two or more moving objects. The RDO reflects the ability to assess the spatial and temporal relations between objects, between objects and themselves, the ability to time and space extrapolation of events based on current information [5]. RBD is one of the most ancient reflexes of animals. The flying Falcon does not notice the partridges sitting motionless on the ground, but it is worth the last run, as the predator falls like a stone on the victim. The dog can not "indifferent" to look at the passing cars. Her nervous system is so excited by moving objects that she is ready to rush at them. Therefore, RDO is considered as a complex spatial-temporal reflex and is used as a physiological test to determine the level of interaction between the processes of excitation and inhibition in the cerebral cortex, both in a state of relative rest and under the influence of physical activity. According to RDO indicators, it is possible to judge the stability of the functioning of the nervous system to a certain extent. Expression of specific manifestations of reaction time of badminton players should be carried out with the help of computer simulation of game conditions. Special psychological studies show that all kinds of reactions are better for computer game lovers than for athletes engaged in those sports where good coordination of movements and vision and fast reaction are critical, which proves the effectiveness of using computer modeling to study and improve different types of reactions [6]. The technique of studying the reaction time of badminton players should include at least 3 tests: 1. Determination of time of simple sensorimotor reaction to a light signal. As a stimulus appears specific to badminton players stimulus — shuttlecock. The program window looks like a basketball court with sectors. Shuttlecock appears in different sectors of the site, at the presentation of which the subject (badminton player) as soon as possible